Soil improvement: the role of 28 beneficial agricultural bacteria
Soil improvement: the role of 28 beneficial agricultural bacteria
Nantong Shizhuang Chemical Co., Ltd. - Zhao Hongming
At present, soil problems occur frequently. Microbial agents can improve soil, promote crop growth, reduce diseases, etc., but different agents have different functions, so it is necessary to select agents reasonably to achieve the desired effect. Let's take a look at the common beneficial bacteria!
1. Yeast: ferment organic fertilizer, loosen soil, increase soil water retention, expand root area, enhance photosynthesis, reduce fertilizer use, increase yield and improve quality.
2. Lactic acid bacteria: lactic acid has a strong bactericidal ability, which can effectively inhibit the activities of harmful microorganisms and the rapid decomposition of organic matter. Lactic acid bacteria can decompose lignin and cellulose that are not easy to decompose under normal conditions, and ferment and decompose organic matters. Lactic acid bacteria can also inhibit the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria caused by continuous cropping obstacle. When pathogenic bacteria are active, harmful nematodes will increase rapidly, and plants will weaken. When lactic acid bacteria inhibit pathogenic bacteria, harmful nematodes will gradually disappear.
3. Bacillus subtilis: It can increase the stress resistance and nitrogen fixation of crops, and is the most common beneficial bacteria for agriculture. It inhibits and resists soil pathogenic bacteria. The mycelia attached to the pathogenic bacteria or produced antibacterial substances through dissolution and bacteriolysis; Produce substances similar to cytokinins and plant growth hormones to promote plant growth; Inducing plant resistance and promoting plant growth; The effect of Bacillus subtilis on the respiratory intensity of soil microorganisms; Improvement of saline alkali soil by Bacillus subtilis.
4. Photosynthetic bacteria: It can improve crop photosynthesis in the environment of insufficient light. After being applied to the soil, it can quickly activate plant cell activity, promote root development, and improve photosynthesis and reproductive growth capacity.
5. Streptomyces jingyang (5406): It is a lactose variety of Streptomyces flavus. It has the ability to enhance soil fertility and stimulate crop growth.
6. Actinomycetes: 70% of the world's fungicides are extracted from this bacterium, which has a good effect on soil diseases. The inhibition rate on egg mass hatching of root knot nematodes reaches 82.3% after 72 hours.
7. Streptomyces rubescens: Streptomyces rubescens is an actinomycete and a multifunctional strain. First, it can accelerate the decomposition of organic matter and release various nutrients needed by crops. The results showed that the efficiency of transforming available nitrogen was 5%~13%, available phosphorus was 7%~15%, and available potassium was 8%~16%; The second is to enhance photosynthesis and induce the expression of stress resistance genes, and improve the disease resistance and stress resistance of crops against drought, flood, low temperature and other adverse environments; Third, it can improve the soil structure to a certain extent. This is because it can secrete a kind of colloidal substance that is conducive to the formation of soil aggregate structure, making the soil loose, breathable, and water retaining, thereby enhancing soil fertility.
8. Bacillus megaterium (phosphorus bacteria): It can hydrolyze phosphorus and has a good effect of degrading organic phosphorus in soil.
9. Gelatin like Bacillus: It can release soluble phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, manganese and other trace elements by dissolving potassium.
10. Bacillus amylolyticus: secretes antibacterial substances to inhibit plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes; Produce antagonistic effect to inhibit the growth or development of harmful pathogens or directly kill pathogens; The competition between nutrition and space quickly seizes the nutrition space of fruit and vegetable wounds to grow, survive and reproduce in large quantities; Induce resistance of host and natural defense function of plant; It produces gibberellin, indoleacetic acid, cytokinin, and promotes plant growth.
11. Bacillus coagulans: it can reduce harmful gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the environment. Increase the content of amino acids in fruit.
12. Bacillus paraspora: it can promote the growth of plant root system and enhance the absorption capacity of root system, thus improving the crop yield; Inhibit the propagation of pathogenic bacteria inside and outside plants, reduce diseases and insect pests, and reduce pesticide residues; Improve loose soil, solve soil hardening, activate soil, improve fertilizer utilization, promote photosynthesis, strengthen leaf protective film, and resist pathogens; Enhance photosynthesis, improve fertilizer utilization rate and reduce nitrate content; Solidify some heavy metals to reduce the content of heavy metals in plants.
13. Bacillus licheniformis: resistant to disease, killing harmful bacteria, improving the ability of crops to resist disease, cold and drought; Increase soil nutrients, improve soil structure, and improve fertilizer utilization; The organic matter in the soil can be decomposed into humus to stimulate crop growth. Promote crop growth and maturity, reduce costs, increase yield and increase income; It has certain functions of nitrogen fixation, phosphorus and potassium removal.
14. Mycorrhizal fungi: they produce a large number of mycelia and transport water and fertilizer to capillary roots, thus expanding the area where roots absorb water and fertilizer
15. Aspergillus oryzae: make the organic matter in the straw become the nutrition required for plant growth, improve the soil organic matter, and improve the soil structure.
16. Trichoderma: increase seed germination rate, promote root growth, and enhance plant vitality. Trichoderma viride spore powder can be directly added to compost, organic fertilizer, biological bacteria and other fertilizers, which plays an important role in fiber decomposition and pathological control.
17. Bacillus polymyxoides: irrigation can prevent and control plant bacterial and fungal soil borne diseases, and significantly reduce bacterial and fungal diseases in leaves; It has obvious effects of promoting growth and increasing yield.
18. Bacillus cereus: microbial fungicide, mainly used to prevent and control soil borne bacterial diseases, such as ginger blast, eggplant bacterial wilt, pepper bacterial wilt, etc. Bacillus cereus can improve the ability of crops to eliminate the oxygen generated in the body caused by bacteria and stress hazards through SOD enzyme in the body, regulate the micro habitat of crop cells, maintain normal physiological metabolism and biochemical reaction of cells, improve stress resistance, accelerate growth, and improve yield and quality.
19. Bacillus cereus (Bacillus cereus): Bacillus cereus (Bacillus cereus) can produce antibacterial substances, inhibit the propagation of harmful microorganisms, degrade nutrients in soil, and improve the ecological environment.
20. Bacillus thuringiensis: it kills insects (including root knot nematodes) and has specific toxic activity against lepidoptera and other arthropods.
21. Paecilomyces lilacinus: It is the most promising biological control agent against root knot nematodes, and has control effect on many kinds of nematodes,
22. Beauveria bassiana: it is called "special killing of underground pests", and it can be repeatedly infected, with long-term effect, once used, and no insects throughout the season. It has a good killing effect on underground pests of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera such as grubs, golden needle worms, ground tigers, mole crickets, etc; It can also infect a variety of Phosphoptera larvae, with significant control effect on pine caterpillar, and good control effect on cabbage caterpillar, corn borer, diamondback moth, soybean borer, rice bract, etc.
23. Metarhizium anisopliae: It is also ideal for more than 200 kinds of insects in 7 orders, including Orthoptera (locust), Lepidoptera (moth pest), Diptera (mosquito and fly pest) and Coleoptera (beetle).
24. Trichoderma harzianum: it grows around the plant roots and forms a "protective cover" to prevent the infection of root pathogenic fungi. It can secrete enzymes and antibiotics to decompose the cell wall of pathogenic fungi. As a kind of biocontrol bacteria, it can be used to prevent plant diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Pythium, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium, Rhizopus niger, Stylosporomyces, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
25. Bacillus scarab: Oval. Bacillus scarab can grow vegetatively on a special medium, but it is still limited to produce a large number of active spores on the medium. The specific parasitic bacteria of scarab can infect grubs and make them suffer from type A emulsification disease.
26. Bacillus sphaericus: one of the mosquito killing pathogenic microorganisms, it has strong mosquito killing selectivity, no toxicity to non target organisms, humans and animals, and is easy to degrade in nature without polluting the environment. The toxicity to different mosquito larvae is mainly realized by the toxin proteins produced by them: one is crystal toxin protein; The other is Mtx toxin protein. Bacillus lentimorbus caused the grub to develop type B milky disease. It has strong pathogenicity to the pest species harming peanuts such as the Mongolian scarab and the copper green scarab. 27. Polychaete Thompson: a specific pathogen of rust planthoppers, which can control rust planthoppers of citrus and other plants. It is recognized that it is the only effective parasitic fungus of citrus rust tick.
28. Cyclospora crassa: Cyclospora crassa (Cyclospora crassa) is a facultative parasitic fungus, which can not only live a saprophytic life on its own in the soil, but also parasitize plant nematodes with strong fixation such as spherical cyst nematodes, cyst nematodes and root knot nematodes in the plant root enclosure.
In particular, EM bacteria and complex bacteria EM bacteria are not a kind of bacteria, but a mixture of bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, bacillus, photosynthetic bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes, acetic acid bacteria and other bacteria - a single strain is first separately expanded, fermented, spray dried, and then mixed together as a composite agent. Compared with the integrated fermentation of compound bacteria, its cost is relatively lower. Compound bacteria refers to two or more kinds of bacteria mixed together. The technical difficulty is that different bacteria are easy to antagonize (fight). Only integrated fermentation can solve this problem.
Bacterial agents can be divided into nitrogen fixation, phosphorus release, potassium release, disease prevention, etc. according to different functions. Different bacterial agents may have one or more functions, but they have priorities. Therefore, when selecting bacterial agents, you must select the appropriate bacterial agents according to your personal needs.
A lot of beneficial bacteria is fertilizer, and a lot of harmful bacteria is disease!
In recent years, the incidence of soil diseases in China is increasing year by year. In the final analysis, it is due to the loss of beneficial bacteria in the soil and the reduction of organic matter. The key to soil fertility lies in whether there are active beneficial microorganisms in the soil, which can extend the service life of the soil and make the soil more "active".
The soil is like a colorful society, in which there are various microbial activities. Some of these microorganisms are beneficial to crop growth and are called beneficial bacteria, while others are harmful to crop growth and can be called harmful bacteria. These two kinds of bacteria compete with each other for living space. More harmful bacteria will lead to fewer beneficial bacteria, and vice versa. In this case, the soil was fumigated and disinfected with "Longxin" cotton wool to kill all microorganisms in the soil, and then the beneficial compound microbial agent was artificially added,
If the soil is hardened and acidified, it means that there is a serious lack of organic matter, and harmful bacteria prevail, which will overwhelm the beneficial bacteria, and some soil borne diseases will follow. At this time, microbial agents and organic fertilizer, cattle and sheep dung, straw, etc. should be applied, because there are beneficial bacteria in microbial agents, which can engulf some harmful bacteria, activate the number and activity of beneficial bacteria, and protect the roots of crops from infection by bacteria.
The beneficial bacteria can decompose the pesticide residues and reduce the pollution caused by the massive use of pesticides. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that cannot be absorbed in the soil will be absorbed again after being decomposed by microorganisms to improve the utilization rate of fertilizer and avoid the waste of large fertilizer. It can dissolve some heavy metal residues after sewage irrigation and purify the environment.
As we know, if the same crop is replanted every year for several months or years, it will metabolize some toxins and affect its health. The enzyme secreted by beneficial bacteria is beneficial to crop growth and decomposes these toxins. In the process of proliferation and metabolism in the soil, it can produce endogenous hormones such as gibberellin and other active substances, which can regulate the physiological process by itself and will not have side effects on crops.
The developed root system and healthy (strong) crops can reduce the incidence of crop disease, which naturally reduces the use of pesticides. Therefore, the situation of soil pollution caused by large amounts of drug use will disappear. Therefore, adding microbial agents and organic materials is to improve the soil, inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria in the soil, degrade and transform toxic and harmful substances in the soil, and accelerate the propagation of beneficial bacteria.